1、转基因食品不能解决食物危机;2、转基因作物并不增加潜在产量;3、转基因作物增加了农药使用;4、有向世界提供足够粮食的更好方法;5、其他的种植技术更为成功;6、转基因食品未能够表明食用安全;7、转基因生物悄悄进入动物饲料 – 不取得消费者丝毫同意;8、转基因作物对农民造成了长期经济灾难;9、转基因作物与非转基因作物无法共处;10、我们无法信任转基因公司 。GM Watch: 10 reasons why we don’t need GM foods《欧洲转基因观察》网站 2010年9月13日发布:Posted by Europe GM Watch website: http://www.gmwatch.orgWith the cost of food recently skyrocketing – hitting not just shoppers but the poor and hungry in the developing world – genetically modified (GM) foods are once again being promoted as the way to feed the world. But this is little short of a confidence trick. Far from needing more GM foods, there are urgent reasons why we need to ban them altogether.在食品价格近来猛涨情况下—不仅打击商店顾客 , 而且同时打击发展中国家穷苦饥饿的人 , 并且再次推销转基因食品为世界粮食问题的解决方案 。 但是 , 这近乎欺诈 。 与需要更多转基因食品相反 , 有一系列理由为什么我们需要全面禁止转基因食品 。1. GM foods won’t solve the food crisis1、转基因食品不能解决食物危机A 2008 World Bank report concluded that increased biofuel production is the major cause of the increase in food prices.[1] GM giant Monsanto has been at the heart of the lobbying for biofuels (crops grown for fuel rather than food) — while profiting enormously from the resulting food crisis and using it as a PR opportunity to promote GM foods!世界银行2008年的一项报告结论:生物燃料生产增加是食物加工增长的主要原因 。 [1] 转基因巨人孟山都是为生物燃料游说的核心(为燃料而不是为食物种植的农作物)--他们从他们自己导致的食物危机获得暴利 , 并同时利用食物危机作为推销转基因食品的公共关系机会!“The climate crisis was used to boost biofuels, helping to create the food crisis; and now the food crisis is being used to revive the fortunes of the GM industry.” — Daniel Howden, Africa correspondent of The Independent[2]独立报驻非洲采访人员丹尼尔·豪顿强调 , “气候变化危机被用来推进生物燃料 , 这帮助制造食物危机;已经出现的食物危机又被他们用来复苏转基因行业的获利机会 。 ” [2]“The cynic in me thinks that they’re just using the current food crisis and the fuel crisis as a springboard to push GM crops back on to the public agenda. I understand why they’re doing it, but the danger is that if they’re making these claims about GM crops solving the problem of drought or feeding the world, that’s bullshit.” [3] – Prof Denis Murphy, head of biotechnology, University of Glamorgan in Wales英国威尔士格拉摩根大学生物技术负责人丹尼斯·墨菲教授强调 , “我内心的愤世嫉俗看法认为 , 他们只是将当前的粮食危机和能源危机作为一个跳板 , 把转基因作物再次推到公众议程上 。 我理解他们为什么这样做 , 但是他们宣称转基因作物能够解决干旱问题或世界粮食问题的解决方案 , 这是胡说 。 ” [3]2. GM crops do not increase yield potential2、转基因作物并不增加潜在产量Despite the promises, GM has not increased the yield potential of any commercialised crops.[4] In fact, studies show that the most widely grown GM crop, GM soya, has suffered reduced yields.[5]尽管做出保证 , 转基因作物并没有提高任何商业化生产转基因作物的潜在产量 。 [4] 事实上 , 研究表明 , 最为广泛种植的转基因大豆 , 遭受了减产 。 [5]A report that analyzed nearly two decades worth of peer reviewed research on the yield of the primary GM food/feed crops, soybeans and corn (maize), reveals that despite 20 years of research and 13 years of commercialization, genetic engineering has failed to significantly increase US crop yields. The author, former US EPA and US FDA biotech specialist Dr Gurian-Sherman, concludes that when it comes to yield, “Traditional breeding outperforms genetic engineering hands down.”[6]对主要转基因食品/饲料作物大豆和玉米的产量进行了近二十年分析的一项经过同行审查的研究报告揭示 , 尽管进行了20年的研究以及13年的商业化生产 , 基因工程在显著提高美国农作物产量方面遭到了失败 。 该篇报告的作者 , 美国环境保护署(EPA)与美国食物与药品管理署(FDA)前生物技术专家古里安·谢尔曼博士结论 , 涉及到产量问题时 , “传统种植显然胜过基因工程 。 ”[6]“Let’s be clear. As of this year [2008], there are no commercialized GM crops that inherently increase yield. Similarly, there are no GM crops on the market that were engineered to resist drought, reduce fertilizer pollution or save soil. Not one.” – Dr Doug Gurian-Sherman[7]古里安·谢尔曼博士强调 , “我们必须清楚 。 到今年(2008)为止 , 没有任何商业化生产的转基因作物实质上提高了产量 。 与此类似 , 目前已经上市的转基因作物中 , 当初基因工程设计来抗旱、减少肥料污染或保护土壤的所有转基因作物中 , 没有任何一个实现了这样的目标 。 没有一个 。 ”[7]3. GM crops increase pesticide use3、转基因作物增加了农药使用US government data shows that in the US, GM crops have produced an overall increase, not decrease, in pesticide use compared to conventional crops.[8]“The promise was that you could use less chemicals and produce a greater yield. But let me tell you none of this is true.” – Bill Christison, President of the US National Family Farm Coalition[9]美国政府数据表明 , 在美国 , 与传统(非转基因)作物相比 , 转基因作物造成了农药使用增加 , 而不是减少 。 [8] 美国国家家庭农场联盟主席比尔·克里斯梯森强调 , “(转基因公司)当初保证你们能够使用更少的化学品生产更高的产量 。 但是 , 让我告诉你们 , 这没有任何一点真实 。 ”[9]4. There are better ways to feed the world4、有向世界提供足够粮食的更好方法A major UN/World Bank-sponsored report compiled by 400 scientists and endorsed by 58 countries concluded that GM crops have little to offer global agriculture and the challenges of poverty, hunger, and climate change, because better alternatives are available. In particular, the report championed “agroecological” farming as the sustainable way forward for developing countries.[10]由联合国/世界银行赞助的一项重要报告 , 由400位科学家完成并获得58个国家赞同 , 结论:对于全球农业以及贫困、饥饿 , 与气候变化提出的挑战方面 , 转基因作物没有什么可以贡献的 , 因为有其他可选择的方法 。 该报告尤其拥护“农业生态”种植 , 将它作为发展中国家可持续性的方法 。 [10]5. Other farm technologies are more successful5、其他的种植技术更为成功Integrated Pest Management and other innovative low-input or organic methods of controlling pests and boosting yields have proven highly effective, particularly in the developing world.[11] Other plant breeding technologies, such as Marker Assisted Selection (non-GM genetic mapping), are widely expected to boost global agricultural productivity more effectively and safely than GM.[12] [13]“病虫害综合治理”以及控制病虫害提高产量的其他创新型低投入或者有机农业方法被证实为高度有效 , 特别在发展中国家 。 [11] 其他的作物繁殖技术 , 例如 “标记辅助选择”(非转基因基因遗传学图) , 被广泛认为能够比转基因更为有效与安全提高全球农业生产率 。 [12] [13]“The quiet revolution is happening in gene mapping, helping us understand crops better. That is up and running and could have a far greater impact on agriculture [than GM].” – Prof John Snape, head of the department of crop genetics, John Innes Centre[14]约翰·因中心作物基因部负责人约翰·斯内皮教授强调 , “基因遗传学图中正在进行一场无声的革命 , 让我们更好的理解作物 。 它已经启动与运行 , 对农业可能有(比转基因)更强的影响 。 ”[14]6. GM foods have not been shown to be safe to eat6、转基因食品未能够表明食用安全Genetic modification is a crude and imprecise way of incorporating foreign genetic material (e.g. from viruses, bacteria) into crops, with unpredictable consequences. The resulting GM foods have undergone little rigorous and no long-term safety testing, but animal feeding tests have shown worrying health effects.[15]基因修改是将外源基因材料(如来自病毒、细菌)并入作物的一种粗糙的不准确的方法 , 而且伴随着不可预测的后果 。 最后形成的转基因食品仅进行过很少进行缜密的试验 , 没进行长期安全试验 , 但是已经进行的一些动物喂食试验显示出令人担心的健康影响 。 [15]Only one study has been published on the direct effects on humans of eating a GM food.[16] It found unexpected effects on gut bacteria, but was never followed up.到目前为止 , 仅仅发表过人类食用一种转基因食品直接影响的一项研究 。 [16] 该项研究发现肠道细菌发生了没有预料的影响 , 但是该项试验从来没有继续进行下去 。It is claimed that Americans have eaten GM foods for years with no ill effects. But these foods are unlabeled in the US and no one has monitored the consequences. With other novel foods like trans fats, it has taken decades to realize that they have caused millions of premature deaths.[17]有人宣称美国人吃转基因食品好多年但是没有任何疾病影响 。 但是这些(转基因)食品在美国没有贴标签 , 因而也没有人跟踪监测其后果 。 其他一些新颖的食品 , 例如反式脂肪 , 经过了数十年人们才认识到它们造成了数百万过早死亡 。 [17]“We are confronted with the most powerful technology the world has ever known, and it is being rapidly deployed with almost no thought whatsoever to its consequences.” — Dr Suzanne Wuerthele, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicologist美国环境保护署(EPA)独立学家苏珊娜·乌尔瑟勒博士强调 , “我们面临世界至今为止最为强势的技术 , 它在对它的后果几乎没有给予任何考虑的情况下迅速部署” 。7. Stealth GMOs in animal feed — without consumers’ consent7、转基因生物悄悄进入动物饲料 – 不取得消费者丝毫同意Meat, eggs and dairy products from animals raised on the millions of tons of GM feed imported into Europe do not have to be labelled. Some studies show that contrary to GM and food industry claims, animals raised on GM feed ARE different from those raised on non-GM feed.[18] Other studies show that if GM crops are fed to animals, GM material can appear in the resulting products[19] and that the animals’ health can be affected.[20] So eating “stealth GMOs” may affect the health of consumers.来自每年进口进入欧洲的数百万吨转基因饲料喂食动物的肉类、蛋与乳制品没有贴标签 。 某些研究表明 , 与转基因产业与转基因食品产业宣称的相反 , 用转基因饲料喂养的动物与非转基因饲料喂养的动物有区别 。 [18] 其他的研究表明 , 如果将转基因作物喂食给动物 , 在最终的转基因食品中能够发现转基因材料 [19] , 而且这些动物的健康能够受到影响 。 [20] 因此 , 使用“悄悄进入的转基因生物”食品可能对消费者的健康有影响 。8. GM crops are a long-term economic disaster for farmers8、转基因作物对农民造成了长期经济灾难A 2009 report showed that GM seed prices in America have increased dramatically, compared to non-GM and organic seeds, cutting average farm incomes for US farmers growing GM crops. The report concluded, “At the present time there is a massive disconnect between the sometimes lofty rhetoric from those championing biotechnology as the proven path toward global food security and what is actually happening on farms in the US that have grown dependent on GM seeds and are now dealing with the consequences.”[21]2009年的一项研究表明 , 与非转基因与有机作物种子相比 , 转基因种子在美国的价格引人注目猛涨 , 减少了种植转基因作物的美国农民的平均农场收入 。 该报告结论 , “在目前 , 在倡导生物技术为全球粮食安全真正成熟道路的高谈阔论与在美国变得越来越依赖于转基因种子现在不得不应付其后果之间 , 出现了巨大的脱节 。 ”[21]9. GM and non-GM cannot co-exist9、转基因作物与非转基因作物无法共处GM contamination of conventional and organic food is increasing.对传统与有机食物的转基因污染正在扩展 。An unapproved GM rice that was grown for only one year in field trials was found to have extensively contaminated the US rice supply and seed stocks.[22]在美国 , 一种未获得批准的转基因稻米在农田试验中仅仅种植了一年 , 就已经发现对美国大米供应与种子库存造成了广泛的污染 。 [22]In Canada, the organic oilseed rape industry has been destroyed by contamination from GM rape.[23]在加拿大 , 转基因油菜导致的污染毁坏了该国的有机油菜业 。 [23]In Spain, a study found that GM maize “has caused a drastic reduction in organic cultivations of this grain and is making their coexistence practically impossible”.[24]在西班牙 , 一项研究发现 , 转基因玉米“对非转基因的这种谷物造成了大幅度减产 , 使(转基因作物与非转基因作物之间的)共处实际上不可能 。 ”[24]The time has come to choose between a GM-based, or a non-GM-based, world food supply.现在是时候了 , 必须在基于转基因作物为基础的世界粮食供应或基于非转基因为基础的世界粮食供应之间 , 进行选择 。“If some people are allowed to choose to grow, sell and consume GM foods, soon nobody will be able to choose food, or a biosphere, free of GM. It’s a one way choice, like the introduction of rabbits or cane toads to Australia; once it’s made, it can’t be reversed.” – Roger Levett, specialist in sustainable development[25]可持续发展专家罗杰·雷维特强调 , “如果允许某些人选择种植、销售与消费转基因食品 , 用不了多久 , 任何人都无法在选择非转基因的食品或生物圈 。 这是一种单方向的选择 , 就像把兔子或甘蔗蟾蜍引入澳大利亚那样;一旦引入 , 就无法逆转 。 ”[25]10. We can’t trust GM companies10、我们无法信任转基因公司The big biotech firms pushing their GM foods have a terrible history of toxic contamination and public deception.[26]大力推动他们转基因食品的大规模生物技术公司拥有有毒污染和欺骗公众的可怕历史 。 [26]GM is attractive to them because it gives them patents that allow monopoly control over the world’s food supply. They have taken to harassing and intimidating farmers for the “crime” of saving patented seed or “stealing” patented genes — even if those genes got into the farmer’s fields through accidental contamination by wind or insects.[27]转基因对它们有吸引力 , 因为转基因使这些公司拥有专利 , 允许他们对世界粮食供应实现垄断 。 他们因保留了专利的种子或“盗窃”专利基因为名对农民进行骚扰和威胁 – 即便某些基因由于风或昆虫的传播造成了意外的污染 。 [27]“Farmers are being sued for having GMOs on their property that they did not buy, do not want, will not use and cannot sell.” – Tom Wiley, North Dakota farmer[28]北达科塔的一位农民托姆·威力抱怨 , “有些农民遭到起诉 , 因为他们没有买 , 也不要 , 也不使用越不能卖的某些转基因生物存在于他们的财产上 。 ”[28]Link to References:对参考文献的链接:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4bb17e9d0100ni01.html